O Museu do Palácio TOPKAPI
TOPKAPI SARAYI TOPKAPI Sarayi
Topkapi Palace was home to all the Ottoman sultans until the reign of Abdulmecid I (1839-1860), a period of nearly four centuries. The order for the construction of the Topkapi Palace on the Seraglio Point overlooking both Marmara and Bosphorus was given by Mehmed II after the conquest of Constantinapolis in 1453. Palácio de Topkapi foi a casa de todos os sultões otomanos até o reinado de Abdulmecid I (1839-1860), um período de quase quatro séculos. A ordem para a construção do Palácio de Topkapi no Ponto Serralho com vista para a Marmara e do Bósforo foi dada por Mehmed II após a conquista do Constantinapolis em 1453. The place was then an ancient olive grove. O local foi então um antigo bosque de oliveiras. The final form of the first palace covered an area 700m², and was enclosed with fortified walls 1400 meters in length. A forma final do primeiro palácio ocupava uma área de 700m ², e foi fechado com paredes fortificadas 1400 metros de comprimento. The walls were pierced by a number of gates, namely the Otluk gate, the Demir gate and the Imperial gate (Bab-i Humayun) , and a number of minor angled gates between them. As paredes foram perfurados por um número de portas, nomeadamente Otluk o portão, o portão Demir eo portão Imperial (Bab-i Humayun) , e uma série de pequenas portas em ângulo entre eles. After the reign of Mehmed II the Conqueror , the palace grew steadily to form a city like complex of buildings and annexes, including a shore palace known as the Topkapi shore palace, as it was situated near the cannon gate -Topkapi- of the ancient walls of Istanbul. Após o reinado de Mehmed II, o Conquistador , o palácio cresceu continuamente para formar uma cidade como o complexo de edifícios e de anexos, incluindo um palácio terra conhecido como o palácio de Topkapi terra, como era perto do canhão da porta-Topkapi da antiga muralha de Istambul. When the shore palace was burned down in 1863, it lent its name to the great complex we now know as Topkapi Palace. Quando o palácio terra foi queimada em 1863, emprestou seu nome ao grande complexo que hoje conhecemos como o Palácio Topkapi. The main portal, the Bab-i Humayun , was suited next to the mosque of Ayasofya (Haghia Sophia Church), and this led a series of four courts surrounded by various structures. O portal principal, o Bab-i Humayun , foi adaptada ao lado da mesquita de Santa Sofia (Hagia Sophia Church), o que levou uma série de quatro tribunais rodeada por várias estruturas. The courts, chambers, pavilions and other sections can be viewed at the floor plan of Topkapi Palace . Os tribunais, câmaras, pavilhões e outras secções pode ser visto na planta baixa do Palácio de Topkapi .
In this page, you can find pointers to the pictures of illuminated manuscript pages in the museum sections and pictures of sections illustrating the architecture of the palace. Nesta página, você pode encontrar os ponteiros para as fotos de páginas do manuscrito iluminado nas seções do museu e as imagens das seções que ilustra a arquitetura do palácio. Please visit the pages at the left frame to get more information on the Palace and Museum. Por favor, visite as páginas no quadro à esquerda para obter mais informações sobre o Palácio e Museu.
The museum director Prof. Ilber Ortayli writes in daily Milliyet once a week. A diretora do museu, Prof Ilber Ortayli escreve no diário “Milliyet”, uma vez por semana. Here are some of his articles: Divan-i Humayun , Harem , Enderun . Aqui estão alguns dos seus artigos: Divan-i Humayun , Harem , enderun .
Click the following links to see the 360 panoramic pictures from the Palace: Clique nos links abaixo para ver as 360 fotos panorâmicas do Palácio:
Secret Garden: Topkapi Palace Harem
As visitors enter the door of Topkapi Palace Harem their sense of anticipation is tangible. Even today they envisage the possibility of meeting an odalisque, her long skirt trailing on the ground as she walks. The word harem originates from the Arabic harîm, comprising the concepts of secrecy, inviolability and sacrosanctness that pervade the very walls of this place and marked life here over the centuries that it was a closed book to strangers.
The Mysterious Harem
The harem section of Topkapi Palace was carefully situated so that it could not be seen from the state apartments and the courtyards where public affairs were conducted. Tursun Bey, a chronicler at the time of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror wrote, ‘If sems [the sun] had not been a word which in Persian takes the feminine article, even the sun would not be admitted to the harem.’ Known in other eastern countries as perde (purdah), zenâne or endrûnr, the royal harem at the Ottoman Palace was known as the Dâr-üs-saâde, or Place of Felicity, while the section of the palace known as the Imperial Harem encompassed both the harem proper, the state apartments of the sultans, the quarters of his household and the pavilions in the fourth courtyard.
The secrecy associated with the royal harem and the harems of upper and middle-class Ottoman houses aroused the keen curiosity of foreign travellers and artists who visited Ottoman Turkey, but their written accounts and pictures of the harem were based for the most part on hearsay. With a few exceptions it was not until the end of the 18th century, during the reign of the enlightened reformist Sultan Selim III (1789-1807) that the architect and draughtsman Melling, Daniel Clark and other artists were admitted to the palace harem to draw from observation instead of imagination.
In 1909, following the deposal of Sultan Abdülhamid II, the Ottoman historian Abdurrahman Seref Bey made a detailed study of the buildings and apartments of the harem, and the women, princesses and princes who lived there. His findings were published as a series of articles in 1910 and 1911 in the historical journal Encümen-i Osmani Mecmuasi. The harem was home to the sultan himself, his mother, wives, daughters, sons, brothers, the high ranking female officials who managed the affairs of the household, hundreds of maidservants, and black eunuchs.
The earliest parts of the harem quarters are the Golden Road, the sultan’s private kitchen, and that section known as Eski Hasekiler. The service sections of the harem included kitchen, food cellar, baths, laundry, sick room and the dormitories of the maidservants and black eunuchs. As the population of the harem increased from the end of the 16th century onwards, mezzanines and additional buildings were constructed containing bedrooms for the serving women and self-contained apartments for the wives of the sultan. The 17th century Ottoman writer Evliya Çelebi records that until the late 16th century the harem did not move to Topkapi Palace, although the sultans conducted their daily business there and often spent the night, going occasionally to the Old Palace to visit their wives and children. Sultan Süleyman the Magnificient (1520-1566) took only his wife Hürrem Sultan and some women-in-waiting to this palace, the complete transferral of the harem from the Old Palace taking place during the reign of Murad III (1574-1595). On 24 July 1665, while Mehmed IV (1648-1687), his harem and household were at the palace in Edirne, a great fire broke out at Topkapi Palace, destroying the Palace of Justice, the Council of State, the Treasury, the Land Registry Office, most of the harem from the Carriage Gate to the Apartment of the Sultan’s Mother, and the kitchens.
The 17th century Turkish scholar Katip Çelebi wrote in his Takvimü�t-Tevarih that the fire was started by a maidservant who had stolen a ring. Mehmed IV and his mother returned to Istanbul to inspect the situation, and the sultan ordered the construction of a new harem building whose interior walls were entirely decorated with tiles. This was completed in 1668, but since Mehmed IV and his successors who reigned during the second half of the 17th century lived for the most part at Edirne Palace, the harem at Topkapi did not regain its importance until the reign of Ahmed III (1703-1730), a period popularly known as the Tulip Era. European baroque began to influence Turkish art and architecture at this time, and the Tulip Era is characterised by a new naturalistic style which is perhaps most strikingly exemplified by the painted wall decoration consisting of vases of flowers and plates of fruit in the Fruit Room of Ahmed III in the harem.
The passion for garden flowers became evident everywhere, on clothing, furnishings and in architectural decoration, and extending even to the names of the harem women, who began to be given melodious Persian names like Laligül (Ruby Rose) and Nazgül (Shy Rose) that suggested they were as beautiful and graceful as flowers. Later in the 18th century, rococo, with its delicate colour schemes and light romantic motifs, began to influence Turkish art, and the Pavilion of Osman III built on a terrace facing the Hünkâr Sofasi (Throne Room of the Harem) and the gracefully decorated wooden structures known as the Gözdeler Dairesi (Apartment of Favourites) above the Golden Road are typical of this later style. Life in the royal harem was very different from that imagined by Europeans. As an institution in Ottoman society the harem reflected the secluded privacy of family life. The cariyes or maidservants who served the women of the household were trained and educated in the skills and accomplishments thought appropriate for women at the time, and after a certain number of years in service allowed to marry. In the royal harem, under the guidance of the sultn’s mother or the principal officer of the harem household, a woman known as the chief treasurer, the girls were taught to read and write, play music, and the intricate rules of palace etiquette and protocol. Very few were honoured even by the privilege of waiting at the sultn’sg table, and still fewer became royal wives. After nine years of service the harem girls were given their manumission document, a set of diamond earrings and ring, a trousseau and some gold as their marriage portion, and suitable husbands found for them. They were renowned for their good breeding and for their discretion, never being known to reveal any intimate details about the royal family to outsiders. Nevertheless, graffiti on the harem walls shows that not all cariyes were contented with their lot: ‘Dilferib whose heart burns / Is wretched / O God / Alas alas.’
Written by Dr. H. Canan Cimilli who is a researcher and Keeper of the Harem at Topkapi Palace Museum
Here is a Turkish article about Harem in Turkish daily Hurriyet.
Palace attire and garments: The costumes of the Sultans
Other garment images can be found in the web-page by Dosseman.
Silks for the Sultans – Ottoman Imperial Garments from Topkapi Palace by A. Ertug and A. Kocabiyik.
This limited edition book focuses on silks and garments made for members of the Ottoman imperial family. Outstanding examples of kaftans and flalvars designed and tailored for ceremonial and ordinary use are selected from the collections of Topkapi Palace. The images presented in this volume, supported by expert commentaries, will usher in a new understanding of the Ottoman aesthetic achievement and of the design philosophy behind it. Superb full-page images, outstanding color reproduction and printing by Amilcare Pizzi of Milan, on highest-quality German paper. 30X41 cm., 220 pages (145 color pages), hardbound in special Japanese cloth and presented in slipcase. Works to be published by the end of 1997 and first half of 1998.